That helps keep premiums to around 0 a month for the average Japanese family." Voluntary private insurance is available through several sources including employers and unions to cover expenditures not covered by statutory insurance, but this accounts for only about 2% of health care spending.
Annual work hours are 4% higher than they were in 1980, amounting to an extra 1 hour and 30 minutes at work per week, on average (ILO 1999).
The Japanese health ministry "tightly controls the price of health care down to the smallest detail.
Every two years, the doctors and the health ministry negotiate a fixed price for every procedure and every drug.
These sacrifices can translate into increased risk for accidents and injuries; greater chronic fatigue, stress, and related diseases; reduced parenting and family time; and diminished quality of goods and services – a serious public concern particularly in the health care sector.
The social costs associated with the growth in work hours and persistent overtime are particularly worrisome when the long hours are involuntary.
In that context, reasonable accommodation means granting religious exemptions to employees with sincerely held religious beliefs against vaccination when such exemptions do not create an undue hardship on the employer’s operations.